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VOL. NO. 20.] CITY OF NAUVOO. ILL. JAN 1, 1846. [WHOLE NO. 128.
HISTORY OF JOSEPH SMITH.
The brethren in Missouri again wrote the governor as follows,
"Liberty, Clay county, Mo.,
April 24th, 1834.
Dear Sir,-In our last communication of the 10th inst., we omitted to make enquiry [inquiry] concerning the evidence brought up before the Court of Enquiry [Inquiry] in the case of Col. Pritcher.-The Court met pursuant to adjournment on the 20th February last, and, for some reasons unknown to us, we have not been able to obtain information, concerning the opinion or decision of that court; we had hoped that the testimony would have been transmitted to your Excellency before this, that an order might be issued for the return of our arms, of which we have been wrongfully dispossessed, as we believe will clearly appear to the Commander in Chief, when the evidence is laid before him.
"As suggested in your communication of the 4th of February we have concluded to organize according to law, and apply for public arms, but we feared that such a step, which must be attended with public ceremonies, might produce some excitement, and we have thus far delayed any movement of that nature, hoping to regain our arms from Jackson, that we might independently equip ourselves and be prepared to assist in the maintenance of our constitutional right and liberties as guaranteed to us by our country, and also to defend our persons and property from a lawless mob, when it shall please the Executive, at some future day, to put us in possession of our homes, from which we have been most wickedly expelled. We are happy to make an expression of our thanks for the willingness manifested by the Executive to enforce the laws, as he can consistently "with the means furnished him be the Legisiature [Legislature]," and we are firmly persuaded that a future day will verify to him whatever aid we may receive from the Executive, has not been lavished upon a band of traitors, but upon a people whose respect and veneration for the laws of our country, and its pure republican principles, are as great as that of any other society in the United States.
"As our Jackson foes and their correspondents are busy in circulating slanderous and wicked reports concerning our people, their views &c., ws [we] have deemed it expedient to inform your Excellency that we have received communications from our friends in the East, informing us that a number of our brethren, perhaps two or three hundred, would remove to Jackson county in the course of the ensuing summer, and we are satisfied that when the Jackson mob get the intelligence that a large number of our people are about to remove, into that country, they will raise a great hue and cry, and circulate many bugbears through the medium of their favorite press, but we think your Excellency is well aware that our object is purely to defend ourselves and possessions against another unparalleled attack from the mob, inasmuch as the Executive of this State cannot keep up a military force "to protect our people in that country without transcending his power." We want, therefore, the privilege of defending ourselves and the Constitution of our country, while God is willing we should have a being on his footstool.
We do not know at what time our friends will arrive, but expect more certain intelligence in a few weeks. Whenever they do arrive, it would be the wish of our people in this country, to return to our homes, in company with our friends under guard, and when once in legal possession of our homes in Jackson county, we shall endeavor to take care of them, without further wearying the patience of our worthy Chief Magistrate. We will write hereafter, or send an express. During the intermediate time, we would be glad to hear of the prospect of recovering our arms.
With due respect, we are, sir,
Your obedient serv'ts,
(Signed) A. S. GILBERT.
W. W. PHELPS,
P. S. Many of our brethren who are expected on, had made arrangements to emigrate to this State, before the outrages of the mob last fall. We hope the painful emergency of our case, will plead an excuse for our frequent communications."
About the last of the month I received, by letters from friends in the East, and of brethren in Kirtland &c., the sum of two hundred and fifty one dollars and sixty cents towards the deliverance of Zion.
May 1st 1834. More than twenty of the brethren left Kirtland for Missouri, according
to previous appointment, accompanied by four baggage wagons. They traveled to New Portage and there tarried with the church, until the remainder of the Kirtland company arrived , who were not in readiness to start with them.
The following letter from Elder Phelps to us clearly shews [shows] the necessity there was of the saints in Missouri receiving assistance from afar:
"Liberty, May 1st 1834.
Dear Brethren.-There are great moves in the west. Last week an alarm was spread in Jackson county, the seat of iniquity and bloodshed, that the "Mormons" were crossing the Missouri, to take possession of their lands, and nearly all the county turned out, "prepared for war;" on Saturday and on Sunday took the field, near old McGees, above Blue; but no Mormons came; neither did Arthur go over to see about his spilt whiskey, so that the scene closed by burning our houses, or many of them. Our people had about one hundred and seventy buildings in Jackson, and a bonfire of nearly all of them at once, must have made a light large enough to have glared on the dark deed and cup of iniquity running over, at midnight.
"The crisis has come, all who will not take up arms with the mob and prepare to fight the "Mormons," have to leave Jackson county. I understand some have left the county because they refused to fight an innocent people. It is said the mob will hold a "general muster" this week for the purpose of learning who is who. They begin to slip over the Missouri and commit small depredations upon our brethren settled near the river, as we have reason to believe.
It is said to be enough to shock the stoutest heart to witness the drinking, swearing, and ravings of the most of the mob: nothing but the power of God can stop them in their latter day crusade against the Church of Christ.
Our brethren are very industrious in putting in spring crops; and they are generally in good health, and the faithful in strong faith of a glorious hereafter.
I remain yours, &c.,
W. W. PHELPS."
All hopes of relief from the General Government was destroyed on receipt of the following communication from the city of Washington:
"War Department, May 2nd 1834.
Gentlemen:-The President has referred to this department the memorial and letter addressed to him by yourselves and other citizens of Missouri, requesting his interposition in order to protect your persons and property.
In answer, I am instructed to inform you that the offences [offenses] of which you complain, are violations of the laws of the State of Missouri, and not of the laws of the United States. The powers of the President under the constitution and laws, to direct the employment of a military force in cases where the ordinary civil authorities are found insufficient, extend only to proceedings under the laws of the united States.
Where in insurrection in any State exists, against the government thereof, the President is required on the application of such State, or of the Executive, (when the Legislature cannot be convened,) to call forth such a number of the Militia, as he may judge sufficient to suppress such insurrection.
But this state of things does not exist in Missouri or if it does, the fact is not shewn [shown] in the mode pointed out by law. The President cannot call out a military force to aid in the execution of the State Laws, until the proper requisition is made upon him by the constituted authorities.
Very respectfully, your obed't serv't.,
(Signed,) LEWIS CASS.
To Messrs. A. S. Gilbert, W. W, Phelps. E. Partridge, and others, Liberty Clay county, Missouri."
"City of Jefferson, May 2nd 1834.
To Messrs. W. W. Phelps and others:
Gentlemen:-Yours of the 24th ult., is before me, in reply to which I can inform you that becoming impatient at the delay of the Court of Enquiry [Inquiry] in making their report in the case of Lieut. Col. Pitcher; on the 11th ult. I wrote to Gen. Thompson for the reasons of such delay; last night I received his reply, and with it the report of the Court of Enquiry [Inquiry], from the tenor of which, I find no difficulty in deciding that the arms your people were required to surrender on the 5th of last November should be returned and have issued his order to Col. Lucus [Lucas] to deliver them to your or your order, which order is here enclosed.
Respectfully, your obed't serv't.
(Signed) DANIEL DUNKLIN.
The following is the order referred to above:
"City of Jefferson, May 2nd 1834.
To Samuel D. Lucas, Col. 33rd Regiment:
Sir,-The Court ordered to enquire [inquire] into the conduct of Lieut. Col. Pitcher, in the movement he made on the 5th November last, report it as their unanimous opinion that there was no insurrection on that day, and that Col. Pitcher was not authorized to call out his troops on the 5th Nov. 1833. It was then unnecessary to require the Mormons to give up their arms. Therefore, you will deliver to W. W. Phelps, E. Parried [Partridge], John Corrill, John Whitmer,
and A. S. Gilbert, or their order, the fifty two guns, and one pistol reported by Lt. Col. Pitcher to you on the 3rd December last, as having been received by him from the Mormons on the 5th of the preceding October, [November].
Commander in Chief/"
"Kirtland Ohio, May 3rd 1834
Minutes of a Conference of the Elders of the Church of Christ, which Church was organized in the township of Fayette, Seneca county, New York, on the 6th of April A. D. 1830. President Joseph Smith Jun., was chosen moderator, and Frederick G. Williams and Oliver Cowdery, were appointed clerks.
After prayer the Conference proceeded to discuss the subject of names and appellation, when a motion was made by Sidney Rigdon, and seconded by Newel K. Whitney, that this church be known hereafter by the name of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Remarks were made by the members, after which the motion passed by unanimous voice,
Resolved, That this Conference recommend to the conference and churches abroad, that in making out and transmitting minutes of their proceedings, such minutes and proceedings to be made out under the above title.
Resolved, That these minutes be signed by the moderator and clerks, and published in the Evening and Morning Star. (Page 352.)
JOSEPH SMITH, JUN., Moderator,
F. G. Williams and Oliver Cowdery, Clerks.
May 5th. Having gathered and prepared clothing and other necessaries to carry to our brethren and sisters who had been robbed and plundered of nearly all their effects; and having provided for ourselves horses and wagons, and fire arms, and all sorts of munitions of war of the most portable kind for self defence [defense], as our enemies were thick on every hand, I started with the remainder of the company, from Kirtland, for Missouri, and on the 6th we arrived, and joined our brethren who had gone before, at New Portage, about fifty miles distance.
My company from Kirtland consisted of about one hundred, mostly young men, and nearly all Elders, Priests, Teachers or Deacons, and as our wagons were nearly filled with baggage we had mostly to travel on foot.
On the 7th we made preparations for travelling [traveling], gathered all the monies of every individual of the company, and appointed F. G. Williams Paymaster of the company from the funds thus collected. The whole company now consisted of more than one hundred and fifty men, accompanied buy twenty baggage wagons, and we were more than sixty miles on our journey, having left but few men in Kirtland, viz: Elder Sidney Rigdon, and Oliver Cowdery, and a few working on the Temple,-except the aged. Zerubbable Snow was appointed Commissary General at the time Williams was appointed Paymaster.
This day also the brethren in Missouri wrote the Governor, of which the following is a copy:
"Liberty, Clay county, May 7th 1834.
Dear Sir: Your favor of the 20th ult., came to hand the 1st inst., which gives us a gleam of hope that the time will come when we may experience a partial mitigation of our sufferings. The salutary advice at the conclusion of your letter is received with great deference.
Since our last of the 24th ult., the mob of Jackson county have burned our dwellings; as near as we can ascertain, between one hundred and one hundred and fifty were consumed by fire in about one week; our arms were also taken from the depository (the Jail) about ten days since and distributed among the mob. Great efforts are now making by said mob to stir up the citizens of this county and Lafayette, to similar outrages against us, but we think they will fail of accomplishing their wicked designs in this county. We here annex a copy of the petition to the President, signed by about one hundred and twenty.
With great respect &c.,
(Signed) A. S. GILBERT,
W. W. PHELPS.
Daniel Dunklin, Gov. of Missouri."
Through the remainder of this day and a part of the 8th, I continued to organize the company, appoint such other general officers as the case required, and gave such instructions as were necessary for the discipline, order, comfort, and safety of all concerned. I also divided the whole band into companies of twelve, each company electing their own Captain, who severally assigned each man, in their respective companies, his part and duty, which was generally in the following order: Two cooks, two firemen, two tent makers, two watermen, one runner, two wagoners and horsemen, and one commissary. We purchased flour, baked our own bread, and cooked our own provisions, generally, which was good though sometimes scanty; and sometime we had jonny-cake, or corn dodger, instead of flour bread. Every night before retiring to rest, at the sound of the trumpet, we bowed before the Lord in the several tents, and presented our thank offerings with prayer and supplication; and at the sound
of the morning trumpet every man was again on his knees before the Lord, imploring his blessing for the days.
After completing the organization of the companies on the 8th, we recommenced our march towards Zion, and pitched our tents in a beautiful grove, at Chippeway, twelve miles from New Portage, for the night. On the 9th we proceeded onward, and on Saturday the 10th passing through Mansfield, encamped for Sabbath in Richfield.
Sunday 11, Elder Sylvester Smith preached, and the company received the sacrament of bread and wine.
Monday the 12th, we left Richfield, for the Miami River, where we arrived, after daily marches, on the 16th.
During this march the brethren in Missouri wrote Col. Lucus [Lucas]s follows:
"Liberty, Clay county, May 15th 1834
Col. S. D. Lucus [Lucas];
Sir: We have this day received a communication from the Governor of this State, covering the order herewith, and we hasten to forward the said order to you, by the bearer, Mr. Richardson, who is instrueted [instructed] to receive your reply. We would further remark, that under existing circumstances, we hope to receive our arms on this side the river, and we would name a place near one of the ferries for your convenience; as the arms are few in number, we request that they may be delivered with as little delay as possible.
(Signed) A. S. GILBERT.
W. W. PHELPS,
P. S. We will thank you for a written communication, in answer to this letter, and the accompanying order."
We forded the Miami river with our baggage wagons, and the men waded through the waters. On the 17th of May we crossed the State line of Ohio, and encamped for the Sabbath just within the limits of Indiana, having travelled [traveled] forty miles that day. Our feet were very sore and blistered, our stockings wet with blood, the weather being very warm. This night one of our enemies' spies attempted to get into our camp, but was prevented by our guards. We had our sentinels every night on account of spies, who were continually striving to harass us.
About this time the saints in Clay county, Missouri, established an armory, where they commenced manufacturing swords, dirks, pistols, stocking rifles, and repairing arms in general for their own defence [defense] against mob violence; many arms were purchased, for the leading men in Clay county rendered every facility in their power, in order, as they said "to help the Mormons settle their own difficulties, and pay the Jackson mob in their own way."
Sunday 18th, we had preaching as usual, and the administration of the sacrament.-Monday 19th, although threatened by our enemies that we should not, we passed through Vandalia quietly, and unmolested; all the inhabitants were silent and appeared as though possessed with fear. At night we encamped on an eminence, were we lost one horse.
Wednesday 21st, we forded While river.-Sunday 25th, arrived at the State line of Illinois. We had no meeting but attended to washing, baking and prepairing [preparing] to resume our journey, which we did on Monday the 26th and at night were aroused by the continual threats of our enemies. Notwithstanding our enemies were continually breathing threats of violence, we did not fear, neither did we hesitate to prosecute our journey, for God was with us and his angels went before us, and the faith of our little band was unwavering. We know that angels were our companions, for we saw them.
On Tuesday the 27th we arrived at the deep river Kaskaskia, where we found two skiffs, which we lashed together, and on which we ferried our baggage across the stream. We then swam our horses and wagons, and when they arrived at the opposite shore, the brethren attached ropes to them and helped them out of the water and up the steep bank. Some of brethren fell trees across the river, on which they passed over. Thus we all safely passed the river, and the day following arrived at Decater [Decatur], where another horse died.
Saturday evening, May 31st, we encamped one mile from Jacksonville, and made preparations for the Sabbath.
Two days previous the brethren in Clay county wrote the following letter to his Excellency Daniel Dunklin.
"Liberty, Missouri, May 29th 1834.
Sir: Your communication to us of May 2nd containing or enclosing an order on Col. S. D. Lucus [Lucas] for the arms which were forcibly taken from us last November, was received the 15th inst., and the order forwarded to Col. Lucus [Lucas], at Independence, on the 17th, giving him the privilege of returning our arms at either of the several ferries in this county. His reply to the order was, that he would write what he would do the next mail (May 22nd). But as
he has removed to Lexington without writing, we are at a loss to know whether he means to delay returning them for a season, or entirely refuse to restore them.
At any rate, the excitement, or rather spite of the mob, runs so high against our people, that we think best to request your Excellency to have said arms returned through the agency of Col. Allen or Captain Atchison. Report says the arms will not be returned, and much exertion is making by the mob to prevent our return to our possessions in Jackson county. We also understand that the mob is employing certain influential gentlemen to write to your Excellency to persuade us to compromise our matters in difference with the Jackson mob, and probably divide Jackson county. We ask for our rights and no more.
Respectfully, your Excellency's serv'ts,
(Signed) W. W. PHELPS,
A. S. GILBERT,
Sunday, June 1st, 1834, We had preaching, and many of the inhabitants of the town came to heart. Elder John Carter, who had formerly been a Baptist preacher, spoke in the morning, and was followed by four other Elders in the course of the day all of whom had formerly been preachers for different denominations.-When the inhabitants heard these elders they appeared much interested, and were very desirous to know who we were, and we told them one had been a Baptist preacher, and one a Campbellite; one a Reformed Methodist, and another a Restorationer, &C. During the day many questions were asked but no one could learn our names, profession, business or destination, and, although they suspected we were Mormons they were very civil. Our enemies had threatened that we should not cross the Illinois river, but on Monday the 2nd we were ferried over without any difficulty. The ferryman counted and declared there were five hundred of us; yet our true number was about one hundred and fifty. Our company had been increased since our departure from Kirtland, by volunteers from different branches of the church through which we had passed. We encamped on the bank of the river until Tuesday the 3rd during our travels we visited several of the mounds which had been thrown up by the ancient inhabitants of this county, Nephite, Lamanites, &c., and this morning I went up on a high mound, near the river, accompanied by the brethren. From this mound we could overlook the tops of the trees and view the prairie on each side of the river as far as our vision could extend, and the scenery was truly delightful.
On the top of the mound were stones which presented the appearance of three alters [altars] having been erected one above the other, according to ancient order; and human bones were strewn over the surface of the ground. The brethren procured a shovel and hoe, and removing the earth to the depth of about one foot discovered skeleton of a man, almost entire, and between his ribs was a Lamanitish arrow, which evidently produced his death, Elder Brigham Young retained the arrow and the brethren carried some pieces of the skeleton to Clay county. The contemplation of the scenery before us produced peculiar sensations in our bosoms; and the visions of the past being opened to my understanding by the sprit [spirit] of the Almighty I discovered that the person whose skeleton was before us, was a white Lamanite, a large thick set man, and a man of God. He was a warrior and chieftain under the great prophet Omandagus, who was known from the hill Cumorah, or Eastern sea, to the Rocky Mountains. His name was Zelph. The curse was taken from him, or at least, in part; one of his thigh bones was broken, by a stone flung from a sling, while in battle years before his death. He was killed in battle, by the arrow found among his ribs, during the last great struggle of the Lamanites and Nephites.
Continuing our journey on the 4th we encamped on the banks of the Mississippi river, at this place we were somewhat afflicted, and our enemies strongly threatened that we should not cross over into Missouri. The river being nearly one mile and a half wide and having but one ferry boat, it took two days for us to pass over. While some were ferrying others were engaged in hunting, fishing, &C.; as we arrived we encamped on the bank, within the limits of Missouri. While at this place Sylvester Smith rebelled against the order of the company, and gave vent to his feelings against myself in particular. This was the first outbreak of importance which had occurred to mar our peace since we commenced the journey. While we were crossing the Mississippi river the elders in Clay county wrote Gov. Dunklin as follows:
"Liberty, June 5th. 19834
Dear Sir,-We think the time is just at hand when our Society will be glad to avail themselves of the protection of a military guard, that they may return to Jackson county. We do not know the precise day, but Mr. Reese gives his opinion that there would be no impropriety in petitioning your excellency for an order on the commanding officer to be sent by
return of mail that we might have it in our hands to present when our people are ready to start. If this should meet your approbation and the order sent by return of mail, we think it would be of great convenience to our society.
We would also be obliged to your Excellency for information concerning the necessary expenses of ferriage &C. Are our people bound to pay the ferriage on their return? as they have already sustained heavy losses, and many of them lost their all, a mitigation of expenses on their return at this time, where they could legally be reduced, would afford great relief; not only ferriage across the Missouri river, but other items of expense that could lawfully be reduced.
We remain your Excellency's
Most obedient servants
A. S. GILBERT,
W. W. PHELPS,
EDWD. PARTRIDGE, &c."
"Copy of a letter from Daniel Dunklin Governor of the State of Missouri, to Col. J. Thornton, dated,
"City of Jefferson, June 6th. 1834.
Dear Sir.-I was pleased at the reception of your letter, concurred in by Messrs. Reese, Atchison, and Doniphan, on the subject of the Mormon difficulties. I should be gratified indeed if the parties could compromise on the terms you suggest, or, indeed, upon any other terms satisfactory [satisfactory] to themselves. But I should travel out of the line of my strict duty, as chief executive officer of the government, were I to take upon myself the task of effecting a compromise between the parties. Had I not supposed it possible, yes, probable, that I should, as executive of the State, have to act, I should before now, have interfered individually in the way you suggest, or in some other way, in order if possible to effect a compromise, uncommitted as I am, my duty; though it may be done with the most extreme regret. My duty in the relation in which I now stand tot he parties, is plain and straight forward. By an official interposition, I might embarrass my course, and urge a measure for the purpose of effecting a compromise, and it should fail, and in the end, should I find it my duty to ACT contrary to the ADVICE I had given, it might be said, that I either advised wrong, or that I was partial to one side or the other, in giving advice that I would not, as an officer follow. A more clear and indisputable right does not exist, that the Mormon people, who were expelled from their homes in Jackson county, to return and live on their lands, and if they cannot be persuaded as a matter of POLICY, to give up that right, or to qualify it, my course, as the chief executive officer of the State is a plain one.-The constitution of the United States, declares, "that the citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several States." Then we cannot interdict any people who have a political franchise in the United States from emigrating to this state, nor from choosing WHAT PART of the state they will settle in, provided they do not trespass on the property or rights of others.-Our State constitution declares that the people's "right to bear arms, in defence [defense] of themselves, and of state, cannot be questioned."-Then it is their constitutional right to arm themselves. Indeed our military law, makes it the duty of every man, not exempted by law, between the ages of eighteen and forty-five, to arm himself with a musket, rifle, or some fire-lock, with a certain quantity of ammunition &c.: and again, our constitution says, "that all men nave a natural and indefeasible right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences." I am fully persuaded that the eccentricity of the religious opinion and practices of the Mormons, is at the bottom of the outrages committed against them.
They have the right constitutionally guaranteed to them, and it is indefeasible, to believe, and worship JOE SMITH as a man, an angel, or even as the only true and living God, and to call their habitation Zion, the Holy Land, or even heaven itself. Indeed there is nothing so absurd or ridiculous, that they have not a right to adopt as their religion so that in its exercise they do not interfere with the rights of others.
It is not long since an imposter [impostor] assumed the character of Jesus Christ, and attempted to minister as such; but I never heard of any combination to deprive him of his rights.
I consider it the duty of every good citizen of Jackson county and the adjoining counties to exert themselves to effect a compromise of these difficulties, and were I assured I would not have to act in my official capacity in the affair, I would visit the parties in person and exert myself to the utmost to settle it. My first advice would be to the Mormons to sell our their lands in Jackson county, and to settle somewhere else, where they could live in peace, if they could get a fair price for them, and reasonable damages for injuries received. If this failed I would try the citizens and advise them to meet and rescind their illegal resolves of last summer; and agree to conform to the laws in every particular, in respect to the Mormons. If both these failed, I would then advise the plan you have suggested, for each party
to take separate territory, and confine their numbers within their respective limits, with the exception of the public right of ingress and egress upon the highway. If all these failed then the simple question of legal right would have to settle it. It is this last that I am afraid I shall have to conform my action to in the end, and hence the necessity of keeping myself in the best situation to do my duty impartially.
Rumor says that each party are preparing themselves with cannon. That would be illegal, it is not necessary to self defence [defense], as guaranteed by the constitution, and as there are no artillery companies organized in this state, no field pieces provided by the public, an preservation of that kind will be considered as without right, and, in the present state of things, would be understood to be with a criminal intent. I am told that the people of Jackson county expect assistance from the adjoining counties, to oppose the Mormons in taking or keeping possession of their lands. I should regret it extremely if any should be so imprudent as to do so; it would give a different aspect to the affair.
The citizens of Jackson county have a right to arm themselves and parade for military duty in their own county independent of the Commander-in-Chief, or some other authorized by him, it would produce a very different state of things. Indeed the Mormons have no right to march to Jackson county in arms, unless by order or permission of the Commander-in-Chief, men must not "levy war" in taking possession of their rights, any more than others should in opposing them in taking possession.
As you have manifested a deep interest in a peaceable compromise of this important affair, I presume you will not be unwilling to be placed in a situation, which, perhaps, you can be more serviceable to those parties. I have therefore taken the liberty of appointing you an aid to the commander-in-chief, I hope it will be agreeable to you to accept. In this situation you can give your propositions all the influence they would have, were they to emanate from the Executive without committing yourself, or the command-in-chief, in the event of failure. I should be glad, if you, or some of the other gentlemen who joined you in your communication, would keep a close correspondence with these parties, and by each mail write to me.
The character of the State has been endured in consequence of this unfortunate affair; and I sincerely hope it may not be disgraced by it on the end.
With high respect your obed't serv't
(Signed) DANIEL DUNKLIN."
By a reference to the Book of Doctrine and Covenants, it will be seen that the Lord, in an early day gave directions for teaching the saints all manner of instructions. As far back as 1832, we find the following:
Therefore, verily I say unto you, my friends, call your solemn assembly, as I have commanded you; and as all have not faith, seek ye diligently and teach one another words of wisdom: seek learning even by study, and also by faith. Organize yourselves; prepare every needful thing, and establish a house, even a house of prayer, a house of fasting, a house of faith, a house of learning, a house of glory, a house of order, a house of God; that your incomings may be in the name of the Lord; that your outgoings may be in the name of the Lord, with uplifted hands unto the most High.
Therefore, cease from all your light speeches; from all laughter; from all your lustful desires; from all your pride and light-mindedness, and from all your wicked doings. Appoint among yourselves a teacher, and let not all be spokesmen at once; but let one speak at a time, and let all listen unto his sayings, that when all have spoken, that all may be edified of all, and that every man may have an equal privilege.
See that ye love one another; cease to be covetous, learn to impart one to another as the gospel requires; cease to be idle, cease to be unclean; cease to find fault one with another; cease to sleep longer than is needful; retire to thy bed early, that ye may not be weary; arise early, that your bodies and your minds may be invigorated: and above all things, clothe yourselves with the bonds of charity, as with a mantle, which is the bond of perfectness and peace: pray always, that you may not faint until I come: behold, and lo, I will come quickly, and receive you unto myself: Amen.
There are several other places in the said Doctrine and Covenants, giving instructions and directions to not only teach the children but to teach one another. This as far as could be has been done, and many of the Saints have gone so far as to obtain several of the learned languages since they came into the Church.
In fact the day is not far distant when all nations will marvel at the knowledge and wisdom of the church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day-Saints. What has been done can be done again. When they find a place of "rest"-a Library, a Museum, and a place of Antiquities, will be among the first works of wisdom. To this end, let the elders that go to the nations prepare accordingly. In Germany they will (1078)
find such a catalogue as the following document described to cull and collect from:
"In the means of Education, the north of Germany far surpasses every other country-The Protestant States are more enlightened than the Catholic, and in Saxony there is hardly a peasant that cannot read and write. In Prussia, there are upwards of twenty thousand elementary schools. The gymnasia of the north of Germany are celebrated; they are schools preparatory to the universities; but the studies pursued in them are equal to the universities in some countries. The gymnastic exercises are pursued in some, though in the most they are discontinued. The universities of Germany are the best in the world. They have students from every European nation, and America. The university of Gottingen, though it has been established but about a century, holds the first rank; but the universities of Berlin, Jena, Halle, and Leipzig, are celebrated. In 1826 there were in the German universities, thirteen thousand two hundred and ninety-five students, and nine hundred and twenty-seven instructors. At Berlin, there were fifteen hundred and twenty-six students, at Halle, eleven hundred and nineteen, at Gottingen, fifteen hundred and forty-five, and at Leipzig, thirteen hundred and eight-four.-The smallest number out of twenty universities, was two hundred and fourteen. The instructions are given any, in a great measure, by lectures, and one professor often lectures in several subjects. The libraries are the best and most extensive in the world; and any student may take out many books at a time, a hundred if he will. The libraries contain all that is valuable in ancient or modern science. The library at Gottingen, contains three hundred thousand volumes, all collected in less that a century. North of the Mayne, it is difficult to travel a day without finding a library; at Carlsruhe, is one of seventy thousand volumes; at the distance of a few hour's ride, is another, at Heidelberg, of thirty thousand volumes. At the distance of thirty miles, is a third, at Darmstadt, of ninety thousand volumes; at Mentz is another of ninety thousand, and another still at Frankfort, of one hundred thousand. Thirty miles from Frankfort, is a small library of twenty thousand volumes, but at Marburg, twenty miles further, is one of fifty-five thousand. At Cassel, the library contains 70,000 volumes, and from this town the traveller [traveler] may arrive in a day at Gottingen, where he finds a collection of three hundred thousand books; and at Walfenbuttel, about forty miles distant is another of two hundred thousand. At Hamburg are two libraries, one of twenty-five thousand, the other of eighty thousand volumes.-At Weimar, is another library of ninety-five thousand volumes; and at Jena, a second of thirty thousand. Dresden has one of two hundred and fifty thousand volumes; Berlin another of one hundred and fifty thousand, and Munich one of the greatest, four hundred thousand. Thirty-one libraries in Germany contain more than three million three hundred thousand volumes, or on a average, one hundred and seven thousand each. The thirty-one largest libraries in the United States, do not contain two hundred and fifty thousand volumes."
Brethren, "wisdom shall be justified of her children" and knowledge of God cover the earth as the waters have the seas in spite of all the combined efforts of wicked weak beings!-Whose wisdom is able to cope with God?
SINGULAR PHENOMINA [PHENOMENA].
During the last few weeks various singular appearances have been at different times visible in the heavens. About a fortneight [fortnight] ago, a star belonging to that class of physical phenomena generally known by the name of "falling planets," was seen by many of the inhabitatnes of St. Helier's (Jersey,) and after careering [careening?] through the heavens for some minutes, it was observed to descend rapidly to the earth, bursting into a thousand fragments. It is curious and interersting at all times to watch the phenomena of the celestial sphere, especially from the circumstances that so far as modern science has yet determined, they exercise no inconsiderable effect on the general operations of the terrestrial world. Within the period of eight weeks the savans of Jersey have had their scientific casuistry called into the field to indulge in speculations respecting comets, auroa borealis, shooting stars, and various other appearances of a singular and remarkable nature, and if we may judge from the immediate past, they will require, in order to exercise their ingenuity, to keep awake during the night for a considerable time further. On Saturday evening se'nnight, or rather early on Sunday morning, another phenomenon made its appearance in the sky, if possible more strange than any which have of late preceded it. A globe of fire, apparently of the dimensions of a good-sized balloon, was observed to move about from position to position, making its appearance now in one place, now in another. It might be seen at one moment blazing with all the crimson lustre [luster] of the sun as it sets in an autumnal sky, in another shining with a full, clear, and burnished light, irradiating the whole aerial vault. Some times stationary, it would all of a sudden shift its position,
and locate itself upon a spot at a considerable distance. Here again it would remain for a few minutes, when, as if tired of the quarters it had chosen, migrate without further ceremony to another. Alternately the subject of these appearances, it remained for nearly an hour, when in a second, becoming detached from the spot on which it was fixed, it flew with a tremendous velocity through the sky, and took refuge behind a dark and murky cloud.-[Weekly Dispatch, Sept. 14th.]
TIMES AND SEASONS.
CITY OF NAUVOO,
JAN, 1, 1846
We commence a new year with this number, and we feel truly thankful to our heavenly Father for the peace, union, and health granted to his people, as a token that their prayers have been answered. The great persecution which has been carried on with unabated zeal against the leading men and the church, for fifteen or sixteen years, is being clothed as in the days of Nero, with stately authority; and wicked men, to screen themselves from their own noble doings, are preferring charges against many of our most prominent men, in cool blood, to frustrate the designs and purposes of God in the salvation of Israel. To meet such a state of the passions and evil purposes of men, the Latter Day Saints, have an alternative, which statesmen, officers, lawyers, judges, jurors, priests and people, have never been able to cope with: They can pray in secret, and their Father in heaven will reward them openly! The consuming vengeance of fire; the devouring appetite of lions, and the violence of heathens, have found prayer a cure all:-too powerful to be resisted; too good to be rejected; and too still to be intercepted. By prayer we conquer.
A man named Oliphant Hall, came into Court and requested to be sent to some place where he could have a home. His request was complied with by a warrant for committal to the House of Correction for five months.-Boston Police Court.
A man sent to the House of Correction, having no place for a home! And this, in a city where tens of thousands are squandered every year upon Church buildings, to gratify the pride and vanity of pious christians! Truly while such things happen, our social system is but a whited sepulchre [ sepulcher]!-Investigator.
(->) We feel ashamed of our country, and people, when we see such prodigies of human folly. The fact is, nothing but a pocket full of money will recommend a person to the common courtesies and blessing of life. All the religion, (excepting Mormonism) there is in the world, id a mere show. A half eagle, will find a man more comfort among the gay world, than Clarke's Commentaries guilded, supported by the mouths of forty priests. The present christian system, is honied poison, and the infidel gets his portion without the sweet.
THE ONEIDA INDAINS.
We regret that the Governor has failed to make a treaty with the Oneida tribe of Indians, in consequence of the utter unwillingness of a large majority of the Chiefs and Braves to conclude a treaty upon any terms that would compel them to sell the whole or any part of their domain near this sown. It would be better for them to remove to the Missouri territory, because their reserve, in this vicinity, will soon be hemmed in by white settlements-the land (which is of an excellent quality) being all surveyed and now in market-and these settlements will be to them like the poisonous Upas tree to the country around it. It is needless to reiterate at this time what experience has eloquently taught the American people, viz:-that when the Indians are in immediate proximity to our settlements, they quickly acquire the vices, with but few of the virtues of the whites: because we imagine the people of Green Bay have seen abundant exemplifications of the truth of the position: true the whole tribe are not immoral and not intemperate; but we are sorry to say that the number of such is very great. On this account more than any other, the people of this town desired their removal; and not because we envy them their rich lands and comfortable farms. As soon as Governor Dodge ascertained that it would be impossible to conclude a treaty, upon any terms, he desired that those who wished to go to Missouri at all hazards would make known their wishes; and eighty-seven answered favorably to this call. Their wishes will be made known to the proper department, and probably some means will be devised to remove them. Thus ends this attempt to make a treaty with the Oneidas. Governor Dodge, we are fully satisfied, exerted all the means that lay in his power to purchase either a part or the whole of the reserve, and his official conduct relative thereto, reflects honor upon himself and upon the Indian department.-Green Repub.
(->) We have been frequently led to remark upon the truly singular course of the United States towards the natives, called Indians.-
Great exertions and expense were made a few years since to remove the Oneida Indians from their "Reservation" in the state of New York, to their present location, Now they have begun to live again, and the voice of the white man from Washington to the Wallamette murmurs "go"
And why? O because the poor Indians "acquire the vices and not the virtues of the whites!" What shall we say upon so extraordinary a result of christianity, liberty, and intelligence? We will say, and all nations of the globe will say-thy religion is a phantom; thy freedom false coin, and thy light as jack-o'-lantern. It is a melancholy fact, among all classes, sects, and denominations, (save the Mormons only) that there is not virtue enough among the better to create a reverence for purity. Sterling virtue! Where shall it be found? Who will forego the shining moments of amassing a fortune, for the mere name of "doing to others as he would wish them to do unto him?" Who is manly enough, and feels contented, to dwell in a common house and labor for a livelihood, when a few year's speculation, in goods, liquors, virtue, vice, and the other thing, will leave him in a palace with wealth sufficient to buy the opinions of thousands?
A stranger to this world, would think that Jesus and this people had different views of the same subject; for he asked: "what shall it profit a man to gain the whole world, and loose his own soul?" but they are grasping for every jot. "The fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the children's teeth are set on edge!" Oh vanity!
MOUNT LEBANON, &c.
Everything from the goodly land, that once resounded with the melody of the sweet singers of Israel, as well as the hum and rejoicings of king Solomon's workmen, who furnished materials for the Temple at Jerusalem, is hailed as the harbinger of that day, when deliverance shall come to the Jews, and all Israel be gathered. There must and will be a shaking among the "dry bones;" all men, not of the blood of Israel, will find out that the issue of Joseph of Egypt, holds the priesthood and birth-right of the first glory of the world; the lineage of Judah the kingly robes: and that the seed of Levi will offer an acceptable offering. What the prophets have told will come to pass, and what the christian world labor to do of themselves-will fail. To this end read the following:-
The New York Journal of Commerce says: We mentioned some weeks since, the appointment by the Sublime Porte of a Commissioner called Chekeeb Effendi, for the pacification of Mount Lebanon, where a bloody civil war has been raging between the Druses and Maronites. By a letter from Syria, of Oct. 10th, which we find in the New York Observer, it appears that the new functionary has entered upon his duties with a strong hand. Says the letter:
Soon after landing, he summoned a meeting of the consuls general, and inquired if their respective ambassadors had written to them and forbidden their further interference in the business thus intrusted [entrusted] to him. They answered that they had. 'Then gentlemen, I trust that you will act accordingly,' and the conference was finished. Having thus disposed of the consuls, the commissioner next ordered every Frank, with out exception, to leave the mountains within ten days, and each consul accordingly requires all those under his protection to obey the summons; if any one refuses, he forfeits his claim to protection. The reason Chekeeb Effendi gives for this measure is the impossibility of defending them from harm should they remain in the mountains, and any organized opposition should arise in consequence of his measures, one of which was understood to be the disarming of the mountaineers.
This order, however, finds many unprepared for this step. The French have large and expensive silk factories in the mountains, and the owner of one of them at least has refused to come down, though some of his European workmen have. The Jasuits [Jesuits] have had to leave their schools, and the missionaries of your American Board, who had taken up their permanent residence in Abeik, have also obeyed the summons. Their schools disbanded, most of their goods have been left, and one of them was compelled to leave a new and comfortable house he had just finished, and would ere this have occupied. But the tenth day found them all in Betrout where their schools are still open to their operations, untouched by these changes. Chekeeb Effendi at first guaranteed the safety of the property that might have to be left, and now he meanly seeks to withdraw his guaranty.
The latest news is that the Druze Sheikhs have refused to meet him. Some are fleeing to the Haouran. No Fellah who owns a mule or donkey dares to show his face, for government is pressing all it can lay hands on to carry up grain and stores for the troops;. Such is the situation of poor distracted Lebanon. What the result will be no one ventures to predict. But let the church rejoice that her Lord and Head is here supreme in all these movements and that he has decreed such results as from eternity he know would be for his own glory.
Any person that can give information of Thomas J. Tucker, will confer a favor on the second Quorum of Seventies, as his name is registered on their book. He has never shown his face to their meetings, Done by order of
EDSON BARNEY, Pres.
B. W. Elliott, Clerk.
City of Joseph, December 17, 1815.
From the Tribune
New York, Nov. 20, 1845
M. M. Noah, Esq.,
Dear Sir: While reading your very interesting illustrations of Hebrew laws and usages, published in The Tribune, I was rather surprised to meet the declaration that baptism was a Hebrew rite; and I beg leave to say that I shall be gratified by being enabled to see the evidences of the fact, and to have your opinion of the origin of the rite. My attention having been directed to the investigation of the Ancient Mysteries, have become satisfied that a species of Baptism was practised [practiced] therein, before the foundations of the Hebrew Commonwealth, in India, Egypt, Greece and Britain; and as those Mysteries, in the remote antiquity of their institution, were intended to preserve a pure worship of the Deity, and the transmission of the traditions of the early ages of the human family, the ritual must have had one common origin, but I was not aware that baptism had been incorporated into the Jewish rites.
There is also another point which I wish to understand better. It is this: "If she still refused to change her faith, or become a proselyte of the gate, or to observe the seven precepts of the sons of Noah;" &c. What are the seven precepts referred to, and whence were they derived? The old Constitutions of the Freemasons speak of the "three principles of Noah," and it seems probable that the three and the seven descend from the same source. Undoubtedly many of your sources of information are contained in what to me are sealed books, or I would only trouble you for the references, and hope you will pardon me for thus attempting to give you additional labor.
I am, dear sir, respectfully yours,
Grand Sec'y Grand Lodge S. N. Y. Howard House, N. Y.
M. M. Noah's Reply.
I shall proceed cheerfully to reply to Mr. Herring's questions seriatim.
Circumcision ands baptism were the initiatory rites for the admission of Hebrew children into the established religion; and these two rites were inseparable from the earliest periods, but they are not both of the same divine authority. The impression I know prevails, that baptism received its original form, and derived its observance from the apostle John, who baptized Jesus in the Jordan, but it is evident that the baptism by John was the induction to a new faith and not a new practice, Jesus, born a Jew, had received the initiatory rites in infancy, and understood them well;. Maimenides-great authority always among Jews and Christians, as a wise interpreter of the law- says, (Issue Biah Cap. 13.) Israel was admitted into the covenant by three things: by Circumcision, by baptism and by sacrifice. Circumcision was in Egypt, as it is said, none uncircumcised shall eat the passover. Baptism was in the wilderness, before the giving of the law, as it is said, "Thou shalt sanctify them to day and to morrow, and let them wash their garments;" and sacrifice as it is said, "and he sent the young men of the Children if Israel, and they offered burnt offerings, they offered them for all Israel."
The origin of baptism dated from the time of Jacob, when he received into the church the young women of Sichem, and other heathens who lived with him. Jacob said to his family, (Gen xxxv. 2,) and to all that were with him, "put away from you the strange Gods and be ye clean, and change your garments." Eben Ezra, also a great authority, applies the words "be ye clean" to the washing and purification of the body;-hence the origin of baptism.
It is certain that heathens who become converts to the religion of the Jews, were admitted by circumcision, and baptism was inseparably joined to it.
"Whenever," says Maimenides, "a Heathen is willing to be joined to the covenant of Israel, and place himself under the wings of the Divine majesty, and take the yoke of the law upon him voluntarily, Circumcision, Baptism, and Ablution are required." This practice continued to the reign of Solomon; but at that period, other nations became proselytes in such vast numbers that they were received by baptism or washing only. Some time elapsed, say thirty days, between circumcision and baptism, in order to give time for the wound to heal; the child was then brought to a running stream, called "gathering of the waters," and plunged in. If a man, the Triumviri or the Judicial Consistory charged with this duty, when placed in the water, instructed him in some of the weightier obligations of the law, and plunged him in, so that every part of the body was immersed, not the tip of a finger was (page1082)
left exposed;-hence the difference between sprinkling and immersion in baptism. If an Israelite, says Maimenides, finds a Heathen infant and baptizes him for a proselyte, he becomes a member of the church, and baptism was always administered by persons regularly ordained, or appointed for that purpose, and witnesses and written testimony were necessary to prove the fact. Proselytes however were unwillingly made at all times, for many were tenacious of their old customs, and fell again to idolatry, so that finally Baptism was gradually abandoned, and it is only now practiced when a christian female desires to become a Jewess, and then under very considerable restrictions and ceremonies.
You will thus perceive that the rite of baptism dates from the time of Jacob, and by the wisest interpreters of the law, was pronounced a Jewish rite and followed circumcision.
"A Proselyte of the Gate," is the next point about which you ask for information. There were two kinds of proselytes-the first of the covenant-the second of the Gate. The first, though of gentile birth, were admitted to all the privileges of the Jews; they worshipped in the same Court of the Temple with the Hebrews, while others were prohibited, and were partakers of all privileges, Divine and human. The proselytes of the Gate were Gentiles, who were admitted to the worship of the God of Israel, and the hopes of a future life, but who were not circumcised. These proselytes, although permitted to worship in the Temple, could not enter the same Court with the Proselytes of the covenant, but were deemed unclean and a special court assigned to them, called the "Court of the Gentiles"-they had a distinct place where the law was expounded to them, they were not denizens of Jerusalem. In the New Testament, Proselytes of the Covenants are called merely Proselytes, and Proselytes of the Gate are called worshipers [worshippers]; and it is a curious fact, and but little known, tha the first proselytes to christianity were the Proselytes of the Gate. Their condition being free and unconstrained, mere semi-Jews, the transition to another faith was easy and natural, and as they were most numerous in the Roman States, they were the first cause of the spreading of the gospel; although Jesus of Nazareth never addressed himself to them, but always to his brethren who, like himself, were born Jews, and were not so by adoption.
The seven precepts of the sons of Noah, of which, as you say, Masonry knows only three, commonly called the Noachides, are as follows:
I. A Renunciation of all Idols;
II. The worship of the true and only God;
III. To commit no murder;
IV. Not to be defiled by incest;
V. To avoid rapine, theft and robbery;
VI. To administer justice;
VII. Not to eat flesh with blood in it.
This was the Common Law that prevailed from the time that Noah left the ark unto the arrival of the Jews at the foot of Mount Sinai. The law of Moses is the codification of the Common Law, as given by the sons of Noah, amplified, extended, and made to apply in justice and in mercy, in good faith and principle, to the whole civilized world which now live under those laws, with some immaterial local amendments.
I am, dear sir, Yours, &c., &c.
M. M. N.
There is so much said about the essentials for salvation, that we cannot well pass an article like the foregoing without remarks. The world, in its age, or dotage, seems to have lost the true points of salvation. Paul said to Timothy: "Be not thou therefore ashamed of the testimony of our Lord, nor of me his prisoner: but be thou partaker of the afflictions of t e gospel, according to the power of God; Who hath saved us, and called us with a holy calling, not according to our works, but according to his own purposes and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world began; But is now made manifest by the appearing of our Savior Jesus Christ, who hath abolished death, and hath brought life and immortality to light through the gospel."
Now if "life and immortality was brought to light through the gospel," according to the purpose of grace, which was GIVEN TO US BEFORE THE WORLD BEGAN, all righteous men must have been partakers of the same glory. By reading and comparing the world of God we find that the ordinances of salvation never vary, though there may have been sundry temporal rites, and sacrifices, by the law, which were instituted in the days of the rebellion of Israel, and others, to act as a schoolmaster to bring persons back to the simplicity of the gospel.
The gospel, or tidings of salvation has never changed: Repentance and baptism for remission of sin; and the gift of the Holy Ghost, by the laying on of hands, as a comforter to guide unto all truth, are just as necessary to eternal life as the elements are to compose the globe. Paul very wisely says:
And the scriptures, foreseeing that God would
justify the heathen through faith, preached before the gospel unto Abraham, saying, In thee shall all nations be blessed.
Noah was a preacher of righteousness, and, of course, must have understood what was necessary to save souls. Nor is it less a matter of fact that "righteous Abel," had and practiced the same glorious knowledge. What a singular figure many of this generation cut, with all their boasted light and intelligence, in inquiring into the ancient modes of worship and discussing and doing away, or "changing the ordinances," in order to show the people of these last days how wise, gracious and self saving they are?
Besides repentance, baptism, reception of the Holy Ghost, and many other essentials, the UNION of male and female, both temporal and spiritual, is of as much importance before God as all the rest; for the man is not without the woman, neither is the woman without the man in the Lord. And again what God hath joined together, let not man put asunder, for the especial reason, that all contracts for time and eternity, have to be made while we sojourn in the flesh: "In the resurrection they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but the great lineage, through the priesthood, and the everlasting Covenant sealed on earth, and sealed in heaven, continues throughout generations.
Another important point which the Gentile world, have reduced to a practice beyond the Lord's wisdom, is the disconnection of kindred. This has been done from the rules or statutes which governed Israel after they had rejected the gospel, which was broken upon the stone tables: and as we are afterwards informed, the Lord gave them statutes not good. All right; the law was added because of transgression.
Who does not know that Abel, Noah and Abraham, were as well qualified to teach the gospel, and the true principles of salvation, both temporal and spiritual, as Moses, Elijah, or Paul? Who does not know that Noah's children, saved in the Ark, had to marry their own kindred: And who does not know that Adam's children, brothers and sisters, were joined in holy matrimony, as well as their Father and Mother, who was "bone of my bone!"
Now, to do the Almighty justice, we suppose that he was just as wise in the beginning, or in the days of the flood, as in the days of Israel, or the apostles, and should the "great restitution of all thing spoken of by the mouths of all the holy prophets since the world began," begin to be realized before this generation ends, who will deny the right of God to fulfil [fulfill] his own words?
As to the cogitations of M. M. Noah, and ten thousand more, they are as the drop of the bucket; not one rises up and brings forth his strong reasons, to show that God is the same yesterday, to-day, and forever, and that his celestial laws are eternal.
SUNDAY IN MEXICO.
The day of all others sacred to devotion among a civilized people, is a day of unusual festivity in Mexico. It would seem that every other day in the week is passed in listlessness and indifference; but all that is gay, animated, and amusing, is reserved for Sunday. A correspondent of the New Orleans Tropic, after noticing the crowds of beauty and fashion which throng the cathedral to morning mass, describes the gay scene when the mass is over. All, says he is bustle and animation. At a corner of the great square are suspended large placards on which the nature of the day's amusement is depicted in every variety of color. Here is a pictorial illustration of the most prominent attractions at the great theatre [theater], which, in common with all the rest, is open twice on this day. A little further on is a full length figure of Figaro, which draws your attention to the fascinating allurements of the opera. The bull fights next solicit your notice, announcing the most terrific particulars. Nor are the minor theatres [theaters] behind hand in presenting their attractions. Endless varieties of other exhibitions put forth their claims. A balloon ascension is advertised for the afternoon. One would suppose, too, that the old Roman gladiatorial shows were revived; for at one spectacle is a contest between a man and a beast. Cock fights, dog fights and fandangos are announced in every quarter of the city. Horse-racing, the circus, jugglers, posture-masters, tumblers, fire-eaters, monstrosities, concerts, cafe gardens, fencing matches, pigeon shooting, gymnastic exercises, country excursions, and balls graduated to every pocket, form but a fraction of the entertainment to which this day is devoted. In the afternoon the public promenades are thronged and the long array of equipages, with the rich and gay dresses of the senoras, is calculated to convey an imposing impression of the wealth and luxury of the city. In the evening the theatre [theater] presents a spectacle which probably few theatres [theaters] in the world can parallel. The beauty, elegance, wealth and luxury of Mexico seems concentrated in one brilliant focus. The finale of the day is generally wound up by a splendid display of fire-works; and thus concludes a Mexican Sunday, and in no other part of the world, probably, is a Sunday so spent-not even in Italy.-Sunday Times.
(->) Let me ask how much worse the citizens of Mexico act than the citizens of New York,
London, or Paris. O ye hypocrites of the nineteenth century, who does not know the Chistian [Christian] nations make a holiday of Sunday?-All may fall to the ground, put their hands upon their mouths and cry, unclean! unclean!
Nauvoo, Jan. 5th 1846.
Having been requested by many brethren to give some account of my late mission in the Pacific, and being willing to gratify them and others, I send you an abridgment of my journal duriug [during] my mission, which if you deem worthy of publication, is at your disposal.
Being set apart with Brs. Addison Pratt, B. Grouard and Br. K. Hanks, to go the Islands of the South sea, we accordingly took leave of our families, and on the first day of June 1843, left Nauvoo for Pittsburgh, where we arrived on the 12th. Br. Pratt, left us at Evansville for Pleasant Garden, Indiana; Br. Grouard, left the same day for Philadelphia. Br. Hanks and myself, tarried in Pittsburgh until the 14th, when we left for Philadelphia, where we arrived on the 23d. in the evening. Here we found Br Grouard, we stayed in the city until the 29th, when it was agreed, that Brs Grouard and Hanks should go on, and that I should await the arrival of Br. Pratt; during which time I visited a branch at Downingtown, also Goshen, where I attended a Conference with Brs Sheets and Moore, who organized a branch. From thence I visited Centreville Del, on the 4th of July where I tarried until the 6th, with Sister Moseley. I then visited Wilmington, stayed one day, then returned to Philadelphia; and on Sunday 9th, by request of Br Grant preached near the Navy yard and baptized four. In the afternoon attended meeting with Br Grant.
Monday 10th, went to Burlington, New Jersey, and on the 15th was joined by Br Pratt at Mount Holly; the same day we visited Shreesville and returned to Burlington, on the 17th went to New York; and the 21st arrived at New Bedford, Mass. where we found Br Grouard, Br Pratt and myself visited Boston on the 22nd, from thence Br Pratt went to New Hampshire; I followed on the 26th, visited many places in N. H., Conn., Mass., and New York; then returned to Boston, where I found the Twelve; here also I met Brs. Pratt, Grouard, and Hanks. By counsel of Br Young, Br. Pratt went to N. Bedford, to procure a passage, which he did for $100 each, in the ship Timolen, Capt, Plasket. The brethren in Salem and Boston contributed liberally, as did also the brethren in New Bedford, particularly Br. Lewis, who with as liberality becoming a saint, gave us $300. After paying our passage we had 80 dollars left for contingent expenses. All things being ready on the 9th October, we embarked for the Pacific Ocean. There were on board eight passengers besides ourselves; Dr. Winslow and family, and Mr. Lincoln and wife. Br Hanks was quite feeble when we embarked. Br Grouard and myself were sea sick, particularly in the Gulf stream, a pleasing sensation which Brs Pratt and Hanks escaped, although the sea was very rugged. Br Hanks continued to fail until the 3d of November, when he departed this life without a struggle. The evening before his death, he had a vision concerning spirits in prison: an account of which has been written by Br Pratt. The Captain and officers were not willing to keep the body until we could make the Cape Verde Islands, consequently we were obliged to bury our brother in the deep blue seas.
"Amid the wonders of the deep,
We made our brother's grave!
Sweet and unbroken is his sleep;
Lulled by the raring wave."
The loss of Bro. Hanks was severely felt by us all, for he was truly a good man, and a worthy brother. One the 9th November we arrived at St. Nicholas one of the Cape Verde islands. Several of us went on shore, procured donkeys, and rode to Bravo, a village six miles in the interior. The inhabitants of these islands are mostly black, and speak the Portuguese language; their religion the Catholic. The streets are from four to eight feet wide, and the houses are one story high, made of roand [round] stones and clay mortar. The soil is sterile and unproductive. These islands are of volcanic origin, and the island of Fogo has a volcano, which may sometimes be seen in a state of eruption. After leaving these islands we steered for Tristan D' Acunha, and on the 10th December crossed the equator, and continued our way with a fine breezo [breeze] until the 3rd of January, 1844 we made the above named islands, situated in Lat. 37o S. and Long. 20o W. On the 4th we encountered a severe gale which lasted twenty-four hours in consequence of which we were unable to beat up to the island; but I learn that the island contains fifty inhabitants, descendants of one Glass, who was searjant [sergeant] in the English army, from which government he draws a pension, and id Governor of the island.-There are three islands in the group, one only inhabited. They also are of volcanic origin. On the 10th left these islands; and the 25th
doubled the Cape of Good Hope, and stood on for the Island of St. Pauls, which we made on the 21st February. We lowered three boats and caught twenty barrels of fish of the rock cod species. The next day we went on shore where we found fifty or sixty miserable looking Frenchmen and one American from Albany;-these were the only inhabitants of the island. The peculiar form of this island deserves some notice. This island seems to have been thrown up by strong volcanic action, forming in the centre [center] of the island a huge crater. From the crater on the south the land is sunk leaving in the crater a basin or bay into which vessels of light draught may enter and have a safe and commodious harbor. In the centre [center[ of this harbor no soundings can be found. From this basin or crater rises on all sides, a hill, to the height of two thousand feet, broken only by the sunken part. This hill slopes gradually to the sea, and on the top many mounds are thrown up by eruptions. Boiling springs are found near the crater, in one of which we boiled a craw fish. Situated 38o42 S Lat. and 77o52 E. Long. Brother Grouard and myself ascended the hill, where we had an opportunity to pray undisturbed; a privilege we had not enjoyed for months. Nothing unusual occurred on our way to New Holland. On the 20th March made the south cape of Van Dieman's Land; an island south of New Holland; and on the last of March and first of April passed the islands called "Three Kings," and pursued our way to the Society Island of Toeboui, and went on shore with the Captain.
The next day all the the passengers went on shore also. This island contains about four hundred inhabitants; they having no missionary, and finding who we were, requested us to stay. Brother Pratt stayed among them. On this island were a company of Americans, eight or nine who were building a schooner: they received us kindly. We tarried here nine days, when we set sail for Tahiti; which we made on the 13th, and on the 14th came to an anchor in the harbor of Papeeti. The French have possession of this town and harbor, which is under martial law: the harbor guarded by a Frigate, Corvette, and Steamer. The French and natives had a battle a few days before our arrival, and three or four since. The French are generally victorious, for the natives are more afraid of the sound of big guns, than they are of bullets. After obtaining a permit of the French Governor to land, we went on shore;-where we could not obtain board among the white inhabitants for less that seven dollars per week. I however made a hon (friend) of a native with whom I lived for two dollars and a half per week. Brother Grouard boarded with Mr. Lincoln, (our fellow passenger mentioned above) at about the same price. A few days after our arrival a battle took place between the French and natives at Point Venus: in which an English missionary was accidently [accidentally] shot by the French: whose funeral I attended. On my arrival at the place of the funeral, I knocked at the door for admittance; but no one bidding me enter, and the door being ajar I entered without farther ceremony. On entering, I saluted them respectfully; but not one of the missionaries spoke to me, or even bowed.
No doubt their grief was so deep and their sorrow so profound, that they forgot for the time that they were gentlemen: their subsequent conduct proved that they were not, their pretensions to the contrary notwithstanding, I went with them to the meeting house; heard their sermon: followed to the grave, and returned with them:-yet not one of these very pious, self-denying, cross-bearing embassadors [ambassadors] of sectarianism, deigned to honor me with a word or a nod; although they distinctly understood who I was, report having anticipated our arrival by a week. We could not get an interview with them; and they soon closed the meeting house and locked it against us; which was built by foreign residents and shipmasters, for the benefit and use of foreigners. We hired a house for eight dollars per month, and commenced preaching in it, and soon baptised [baptized] from fifteen to twenty whites; Americans and English. In the mean time we began to acquire the Tahitian language, and to preach to the natives, hundreds of whom professed to believe our preaching, but would not obey. Their reason was that they dare not, because they expected assistance from the English against the French, and they feared the missionary influence with the English Government would be exerted against them if thy embraced our principles. Affairs being thus in Tahiti, Bro. Grouard and I thought best to visit other islands. Accordingly we ordained Bro. Lincoln to preside over the branch in Tahiti, and took our departure; Bro. Grouard East, and I West. I visited Morea, Huhena, Rieaties, Bobobolo, and Taha; from thence to the island of Mote one of the Harvey group.
From thence to the island of Mangla, where I landed. This island contains about four thousand inhabitants, whose language is a little different from the Tahitian, No missionary was on this island, so I offered to tarry and teach them; but they informed me that they had received letters from Mr Pratt and Mr. Baff,
English missionaries, forbidding them to receive any missionaries or teachers, unless they brought letters from them; that all who had not these letters were Popa havare, (lying Catholics.) Consequently they had passed a law that no white man should live among them. From there I went to the island of Ruruto, where they told me the same story. So I found that the missionaries had written to all the islands in the group to prevent our landing. The Lord reward them according to their works. I then returned to Tahiti, where I received letters from Bro. Grouard. He had landed on the island of Anama, one of the chain group. This group consists of thirty or forty low coral islands, with no vegetable but cocoanuts [coconuts], but they have plenty of fish and hogs. The population of Auana is about four thousand. Bro. Grouard had baptised [baptized] twenty of the principal men and many were investigating the work. Bro. Grouard thinks that twenty or thirty elders might be well employed on this group; he will probably do a great work in those islands. The productions of the society Islands are bread-fruit, bannana [banana], oranges, 'aii, plantains, yams sweet potatoes, taro, viies, guovas, &c. &c. Cattle and horses have been brought here, and hogs, dogs, goats, sheep, and fowls are here also. The natives are tall, well proportioned and muscular; of an open, intelligent countenance, dark olive, or copper color, quick of apprehension, of a mild disposition and very friendly. Finally on the third July 1845, I left for home in ship "Free Brother," Capt. Mitchell; on the sixth, made the island of Tooboui; went on shore, but was much disappointed not seeing Bro. Pratt, who was on the other side the island, six miles distant. A native immediarely [immediately] run to carry him word of my arrival, but the Captain would not wait; so I was obliged to leave without seeing him. I learned that he had baptized eight or nine Americans who were building the schooner, and about forty natives, in all fifty or more. After staying on shore about an hour, and obtaining a few vegetables and hogs, we went on board and stood away for Cape Horn; after passing which the captain gave me leave to preach, which I did four or five sundays; the result was that seven or eight believed, two of whom I baptised [baptized] in Philadelphia. The Captain himself believed, but finding that he must obey also became very bitter, which renderd [rendered] some part of the voyage rather disagreeable. After a passage of one hundred and thirty days from Tahiti, I arrived at Nantucket, Massachusetts, on the sixth November, and on the twenty second arrived in Philadelphia, where I staid [stayed] two days ands baptised [baptized] three. On the twenty fourth left for Nauvoo, where I arrived on the twenty ninth of December. Thus, after an absence of two years and a half, I have circumnavigated the Globe, to build up the kingdom of Christ, and prepare a way for the spread of the gospel among the islands of the sea.
From the Book of Covenants, Page 431
"Send forth the elders of my church unto the nations which are afar off; unto the islands of the sea; send forth unto foreign lands; call upon all nations; firstly, upon the; Gentiles, and then upon the Jews. And behold and lo, this shall be their cry, and the voice of the Lord unto all people: Go ye forth unto the land of Zion, that the borders of my people may be enlarged, and that her stakes may be strengthened, and that Zion may go forth to the regions round about: yea, let the cry go forth among all people; awake and arise and go forth to meet the Bridegroom: behold and lo the Bridegroom cometh, go ye out to meet him. Prepare yourselves for the great day of the Lord.
Watch, therefore, for ye know neither the day nor the hour. Let them, therefore, who are among the gentiles, flee unto Zion;. And let them who be of Judah, flee unto Jerusalem, unto the mountains of the Lord's house. Go ye out from among the nations, even from Babylon, from the midst of wickedness, which is spiritual Babylon. But verily thus saith the Lord, let not your flight be in haste, but let all things be prepared before you: and he that goeth, let him not look back, lest sudden destruction shall come upon him."
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